Developed in USSR as military/working dog. Also used as guard dogs. Rare outside Russia.
Large, powerful dog with long legs, dense black wiry coat, and triangular ears.
Confident, courageous, loyal. Devoted to family. Wary of strangers. Needs extensive training.
Moderate energy. Needs 45+ minutes exercise daily plus mental stimulation. Responds best to firm, consistent training.
Requires regular brushing and professional trimming. Sheds little. Bathe only when needed.
Prone to hip dysplasia, eye problems, bloat. Lifespan 10-14 years.
Adapt well to any home but need space. Prefers cool climates. Need early socialization.